The Red, Black, & Green Flag

My flags and colors mean alot to me, and i do have quite a few. First off is my colors of Red, black, and green. As a revoloutionary these colors hold much significance historically for my people ( African Americans) during the times of civil rights and so forth, but the meaning and connotation of my colors goes far beyond that.  The philosophical aspects are that each color represents something special and unique. RED represents blood, war, a warning of danger, danger and death. It shows the world that i am a warrior and that i train in the ways of the warrior.Red lets the world know that i am willing to shed the blood of my enimies as well as lose my own in battle, fighting for what i believe in. The color Black is the color of life. Contrary to Western thought, black and darkness is seen as a positive and beautiful thing in some aspects. In refrence to being the color of life, the planets and stars of the universe were born of the blackness / darkness of the outer reaches of space and the cosmos. The same as the child is born of the darkness of the mothers womb, and comes into light.  In this context, black in thr color of life. For me, black also represents the spirits of my ancestors and it is the color of the ancients i decend from too. The color  Green represents represents the earth (which is our mother) and all the life we come to know around us.The earth is our mother, home, sustenance, life….our everything. Green can also represent the spring season and new life….the plants are in bloom, the animals return from hibernation to mate, and so forth. When i add red, black and green together, it shows that i am a black warrior of the earth and cosmos, who fights to protect them and the life they sustain.

The Conquering Lion Of Judah Flag

The Lion of Judah with it’s green, gold and red color is the flag of Ethiopia. It is also a known symbol of Emperor Hailee Selassie (also known as Ras Tafari Mekkonen) and his followers the Ras Tafarians. Beyond the religious connotations of the Lion Of Judah , then is a great story of how this symbol the lion with the flag in it’s mouth became Ethiopia’s symbol. There have been many interpretations of this story, I’ll give you the short version of the one I was taught. I was told it some time ago so forgive any slight mis-details. It involves a lion and lioness. Villagers heard loud roars on a daily basis but never knew where they came from. Upon climbing a hill, they looked down to see a lioness circling a lion and repeatedly swiping him with her claws, and biting him. The noble lion took the abuse and  did not strike back, roaring out in pain each time he suffered further damage. At the same time everyday this scenario took place, and this went on for many moons. One day, the lion apparently had enough of the abuse. It finally lashed out at the lioness in one fatal blow, and killed her instantly. The villagers stopped hearing the noise and wondered what happened. Although battered and injured from the long time of taking punishment, the lion made his way to the top of the hillside. The villagers looked on in amazement at the indomitable lion whom had a flag in it’s mouth, the green, gold, and red flag of Ethiopia. From that day forward, the lion with the flag in it’s mouth was added to their national flag as a symbol, the Conquering lion Of Judah.


10 Codes of Hacomtaewresdo Warriorism

In the following, the 10 general codes of Hacomtaewresdo Warriorism in no particular order as well as some philosophical quotes. This is the code of warriorism i have lived by my whole life and have taught to many warriors. Study of Warrior philosophy should be apart of any warrior/hero’s trainning, as all trainning is not physical.

Respect – To consider worthy of high regard
Respect is shown to all unless they show they do not deserve it. It is understood not all deserve respect and respect is only shown to those who desreve it.
* If you cannot humble yourself to others, how can they humble themselves to you

Discipline – Instruction. Trainning in a field of study. Trainning that corrects, molds, or perfects the mental faculties or moral character. Orderly or prescribed conduct or behavior.
*We are more anxious to speak or do than we are to listen or observe.

Dedication – Self sacrificing devotion.
the only way to be able to perfornmat one’s best and to achieve the greatest results is through dedication. you should be dedicated to excellence in all you do.
*Mediocrity is the hand rail the unmotivated use to hold their   weak spirits upright.
*Popularity is the small change of the riches of being a legend

Self Control – Restraint excercized over one’s impulses, emotions, and desires.
The warrior must excercize control over their power so that they do not abuse or misuse it. In life, the warrior faces much struggle, fustration, sadness, and even heartache. In these hard times, the warrior cannot let these things change them for the negative, they must have self control, and stick to their righteous teachings and morals. They gain experience through overcomming the struggle which make them a warrior in the first place.
* We cannot shake hands with clenched fists

Responsibility- Able to answer for one’s conduct and obligations. Trustworthy. Able to choose for oneself between right and wrong.
Being responsible is  how a warrior lives up to their duties and purpose in life. They are trustworthy and able to be depended upon, even sacrificing of themselves to fufill their duties. They will stop whatever they are doing to be of help or aid to someone in need, and are a rock in the lives of their friends, family, and community as well as the world.
*It is the responsibility of the warrior to be a role model and promote the spread of positive ideals and behavior.

Integrity – Firm adherence to a code of moral or artistic values. Soundness. Incorruptability. The quality or state of being undivided or complete. Honest.
Character of the warrior, they always maintain their integrity, never allowing themselves to become corrupted by outside situations or influences. they maintain their high moral fiber and righteousness, and strive to constantly better themselves. It is not easy, but they do so without fail.
* In great affairs, men show themselves as they wish to be seen. In small affairs they show themselves as they truly are. dont believe in what you see, believe in what you know.

Honorable – A person of superior standing. One whose worth brings respect.
The warrior arts and lifestyle revolve around honor and being honorable. Ti is a trait of the hero, and attains the trust and respect of others.
* If you want to know what a person is truly like, take notice of how they act during hard times and desperate situations.
*People do not seem to realize that doing what is right is no gurantee against misfortune. You do what is right because it is right, because you should, and because you can make a difference.

Indomitable – Incapable of being subdued. Unconquerable. Courage.
T very big tenet of the warrior is remainning indomitable and having an indomitable spirit. This is where the warrior(or hero) gets the courage to stand up for right for themselves, others, their community and for good in the world in general. The wqarrior always stands firm and never gives in to fear. Although it is a natural emotion, the warrior knows this and does not give into it cause they see it (fear)as comming from within, and see giving in to it as self defeat. Be it versus the enemy on the field of battle or versus the hard times and tough situations in life.
* You do not hold your own in the world by standing on guard, but by attacking and getting well hammered yourself.

Perseverance – To remain steadfast.
Like indomitable spirit, this is like not giving up or giving in. Not on youself or what you may be able to accomplish.the warrior knows that if they maintain perseverance, there is nothing they cannot accomplish. The warrior perseveres through all struggles.
*It is the journey that makes us, not the destination.
*Well begun is halfway done.

Perfection – Freedom from fault or defect. Flawlessness. Exemplification of suppreme excellence. an unsurpassable degree of accuracy or excellence.
The highest ideal the warrior strives to embody their entire lifetime in all their actions. This is how the warrior becomes the best at all they do and achieve mastery in their lives down the path of learning. The warrior lives with no regrets because they strive for perfection everyday in their lives and  live knowing they did their best which is all they can do.

 Hacomtaewresdo Warrior Arts History & Lineage      The Hacomtaewresdo Warrior Arts are Hybrid systems of integrated combat disciplines. Their history and lineage is traced back to the oldest known and most prolifically known martial arts and lineage of warriors, those of ancient Africa. The martial arts of the world originated in ancient Africa and spread to other cultures and made many new and different fighting arts. The Hacomtaewresdo Warrior Arts are a modern interpretation of this history. Taking combative arts from many different cultures, their history and lineage is traced back to afrocentric and African origins. The various native peoples of ancient Kemet ( Egypt ) and Africa were practitioners of systemized forms of the martial arts thousands of years before any other culture on earth. Proof of this is in the toombs of  Nubian ( Black ) Pharoahs of ancient Egypt in the form of pictures, painted scenes, and other forms of recorded expression. These records have been dated as going as far back as 3,000 BC . This without question records amongst the oldest and first forms of systemized martial arts on earth. One art depicted is wrestling as done by the Nubians  i.e Nubian wrestling. Nubian wrestling is the first and original form of wrestling, in modern times it would be classified as a style submission wrestling based upon techniques it contained. These were leverage throws, suplexes, holds and pins, jointlocks, and submission holds. It was a total grappling system having standing grappling, ground grappling, various methods of takedowns and total body submission. On toomb walls also were scenes of other types of empty hand martial arts being utilized as well as martial arts weapons being used by warriors. There are even scenes of scenes of castles being used and these scenes pre-date the use of castles elsewhere by other cultures. The Egyptian toombs which contain pictures, and so forth of this knowledge were of Govenors Baquet 3rd, Khety, and Amenemhat. They were Black Nubian Pharoahs of Egypt. These toombs are at the current day site called Beni Hasan in Egypt.The martial arts and sciences originated in the interior of the continent and along the Nile Valley region with the Nile Valley civillization. They were the very first practitioners of the martial arts, having done so for well over 5000 years. 
Another art dating back as far, if not farther than the Nubians recrded form of wrestling / submission grappling is an art called Ku -Ta. Meaning defender of the Pharoah, this system of martial science also comes from ancient Egypt. By 3,000 B.C it had been shared with the ancient Elamites and also the Akkadians too. They went on to be the founders of the early Chinese dynasties, and they took the art with them. Soon following this, the art of Ku-Ta  became the art of Kuntao, meaning the way of the fist. From that point, it filtered into the Phillipines (like many other African weapon and empty hand martial arts) and now is taught along with their arts. India was ancient Africa’s heartland in Asia and was the sister civillization of Africa. The first civillizations of people in India were Africans from Ethiopia. They took cultural knowledge from Africa with them there which further developed, among them the science of breath control, Yoga, Meditation, and other related disciplines. Later, following the Ethiopians, the ancestors of the Australian Aborigines arrived in India, merged with the Ethiopians already there, and this became the civillization of India. This merger in fact, bought us India’s great Indus Valley Civillization.
     China’s first dynasty and Emperor were Africoid or of Black origins. Founded by King T’ang or Ta, the earliest documented rulership in China was the Shang or Chiang dynasty ( 1500-1000 B.C ). The Shang were credited with unifying China’s early elements to form their first civillization. The Shang were given the name Nakhi, Na meaning Black and Khi meaning Man. The first Chinese Emperor, the legendary Fu-Hsi (2953-2838 B.C) was a wooly haired Black man. Among his credits are establishing government and originating social institutions as well as cultural inventions. He is said too, to be the originator of the I-Ching, the Book of Change. It is among the oldest and most revered system of philosophy. Emperor Hung Wu was founder of the great Ming dynasty of China. He was of African (Sudanese) and Mongolian decent and was also a Muslim. The skills that set the foundation for Shaolin Kung Fu decend from India and Africoid origins. Even in the White Garment Hall of the Shaolin Monastery in Honan ( Hunan) Province of China, there are tow 12 foot long paintings of Chinese and Africoid ( Black) Shaolin Monks trainning in Kung Fu (Boxing) skills together. Although not promoted ( and somewhat hidden ) it shows striking evidence of the deep interrelation of Africa, the martial arts, and Asia.
   Amongst the earliest inhabitants of the Japanese continent are a people called the Ainu. They have oral traditions which retell of a race of people of a dark complexion that are small of stature that resided in Japan before they did. Looking deeper, some historians believe the Ainu originated in Egypt, while others have found evidence of them traveling to Egypt and making offerings of gifts to Egyptian Pharoahs. Even records in Mesopotamia and egypt record interacting with a people they called the Anu ( Ainu ? ). Also, there are a nuber of Japanese peoples, who given skin complexion and hair, resemble and have the same features of the Bushmen of Southern Africa. There is ancient knowledge too, of Japan being conquered from it’s southern regions by a group of Black Warriors. This all leads us to the fact of the first Shogun of Japan himself was indeed a Black man. His name was Sakanouye Tamura Maro and he lived around 800 C.E (common era).
   In the Western / European world, the first culture to make a systemized form of the martial arts were the ancient Greeks. In modern times, this fighting art is known as Pankration. Pankration it’s self a modern variation of an original Kushite ( African) martial art called Pan Kau Ra Shen which means “fighting with the spirit of Ra”. Ra of course is a major Egyptian God. The Greeks were great warriors and had legendary fighting prowess. The ancient Greeks were the first to come in contact with the African martial arts and sciences, n the form of Nubian wrestling / grappling in ancient Egypt. On the toomb walls in ancient Egypt, where the records of Nubian submission grappling exist, the Greeks left grafitti on the walls written in Greek. This shows how they studied and aquired the trchniques and skills of Nubian grappling and took this knowledge back to Greece / Europe where the skills flourished. The Greeks adoption of these skills definitely fostered the ekills of Pankration, Greek wrestling, Roman wrestling, and Catch Wrestling ( much later) and wholistically the Greco – Roman combat disciplines in general. It is evident in the fact they are so grappling based.Greco- Roman and catch wrestlers readily trace te origins of their lineage of wrestling skills back to wrestling comming from Egypt. In 776 B.C, the Greeks first began wrestling in honor of the African God Amon whom they renamed Zeus ( all the Greek Gods are renamed African Gods, all the Roman Gods are renamrd Greek Gods). When Rome conquered mainland Greece, they adopted many things, martial arts being one, from the Greeks. Greek and Roman wrestling was combined to make Greco-Roman wrestling and over time, many other systems of Western wrestling came thereafter.This further proliferated the art of Nubian grappling because it is inherent in all of these fighting methods. Going further into Greco- Roman combat, the Romans also adopted Pancratium ( Latin for Pankration ) into their games during the early days of Gdadiator competition. A Gladiator was trained in the empty hand skills of Roman and adopted Greek fighting arts like boxing, wrestling, Pancratium and so forth, but gladiatorial combat heavily revolved around armed, armored, combatants. When the Roman Empire conquered many lands, sometimes many of the defeated soliders were sold into slavery from these places. They were usuwally bought by a Lanista, someone who ran a stable of Gladiators. They would reside at a Gladiator academy and train and fight. Over time the could usuwally earn their freedom, if they lived long enough. There were many ethnicities, from Spainards and Germans to Greeks and many others. A major portion were Africans who were warriors in their homeland. Defeated in battle with other tribes, if not adopted into the victorious tribe, they were sold into the African slave trade. Through points such as Carthage in northern Africa ( Egypt ), they wound up in Rome, and as Gladiators.
   The African martial arts are very vast. Within the 13 million square miles of Africa there were many territories during ancient times ( as now) with many systems of martial art / science. The number of these arts from ancient times to now is great, and many systems of boxing and combat have been lost over time. From Egypt / Nubia there is the Nubians form of grapplingand Ku -Ta. Jirilbu is a martial science of central and western Africa and resembles Japanese Jiu Jitsu and Judo. It is most likely the counterpart / predecessor of Nubian grappling. Jakadi is a central African martial science that uses trapping, striking, and kicks and it’s motions resemble Wing Chun Kung Fu or empty hand Phillipine martial arts. Somo is a central African martial science and contains some of the same principles and techniques of Brazilian Capoiera. Ljala is the fighting science of the Yoruba tribe of Nigeria and Benin. It is based in stickfighting and and is like the stickfighting arts of Arnis, Kali, and Escrima. In Senegal there is Senegalese wrestling which is a tremendous spectator sport in modern times. In the south of Africa there is the art that was created by the warrior King Shaka Zulu called Zulu Impi. King Shaka named it after his warriors and it was a very powerful fighting science that he founded himself . He also designed their war spear and developed their full length body shield. The Zulu army ( consisting of men and women) could take massive casualties and keep fighting hard without letting up.
They had a feared reputation and were known for their high level of trainning and physical fitness. In one battle during the 1800’s they defeated the Britsh who had firepower, while they ( Zulu) had none, only tribal martial arts weapons and their fighting science. Dating back to 3,000 B.C there is an ancient Egyptian statue of Prince Puntcarrying a boomerang, as well as scenes of the boomerang in ancient toombs. The Tha people of central Africa ( also called Pygmies ) originated the bow and arrow over 400,000 years ago. Nubia was called the Land of the Bow because their warriors were legendary archers. The Nubian warriors were commonly hired as mercenaries by the Ancient Greeks, Persians, and Arabians and fought in their armies. Many African Queens were warriors and led their armies into battle. Queen Ranavalona 1st of Madagascar was a warrior. She had a palace erected in the capital she founded ( 17 th century ) called Antananarivo, which means city of a thousand warriors. The African Amazon women of Bein were known for collecting the skulls of their enimies. All of this is but a very small portion of the deep history and lineage of the African warrior arts and the lineage of the Hacomtaewresdo Warrior Arts and HCWW-CAUCA.
 I am a very Afro-centric person, and many times i have been actually asked “am i from Africa? “. While i ma not and that question makes me want to go into a serious history lesson, i refrain. What led to me being so Afro-cetric is two things ; learning the truth of the true history of Black people, and also my own family hertiage.
In my own story, when i was younger (grade school) i used to be ashamed to be a black person. This was due to the way i comprehended thing i learned in history in school. I remember constanlth laerning about how black people were slaves and about Jamestown and so forth. I thought it was sshamefule to be a black person. This is exactly what school teaches young black kids. As i ageda little and undertook a lifelong study of martial arts and warrior culture and history. I wound up learning about how the ancient Africans were the ones whom originated the martial arts and were the first warriors, amonsgst being the true originators of the sciences, mathematics, and so much more. When i learned the truth of whom i decended from, i became proud. I continued to study and gain knowledge of self, and have not been afraid to carry mysefle with a great afro-centric pride. To not let go of that part of my heritage as a black person.
What goes deeper, is when i looked into my family history and on my moyher’s side, i found out her bloodline was decended from a group of peoples called the Moors. Moor means black, derived from the Greek mauros (meaning scroched. The African countries Morocco and Mauritania come from this root. The Moors were African warrior-scholars whom took the took the sciences to Europe and spread them. The Moors ruled Spain, Southern france, and much of Scotland and northern African during the middle ages for 700 years. The Black African moors gave Europe one of it’s finest civillizations. the first civillized Europeans were the Greeks, whom were chiefly civillized (bought civillization) by the Africans of the Nile Valley region. The Greeks transitted this culture to the Romans whom lost it, which bought on Europe’s Dark Ages (lasting 500 years). Civillization was restored to Europe when the Black Moors from Africa bought the dark Ages to an end.
  During the Golden Age of Islam, the Moorish Empire was the most advanced state in the world. Cordova, Spain (Moorish Capital in Europe) was the most wonderful state in the 10th century with well paved streets with sidewalks, public baths in the hundreds (when cleanliness in Christian Europe was considered sin). Moorish Monarchs dewlt in splendid palaces, while the crowned heads of England, France, and Germany lived in barns that had no windows or chimmneys 9smoke went through a hole in the roof).
  The Moors were scholars of the highest order taking knowledge from east and West and translating it into Arabic. They went so far as to ransack monasteries for rare books ! one Moorish kikg hada private library of 600,000 books ! In Moorish Spain education was availible to all, while in Christian Europe 99% of the poulace was illeterate, including Kings. There were over 800 public schools in Cordova, Spain alone.
  The Moors made great advances in mathematics, history, physics, botany, medecine, and chemistry. The Moors invented the first shooting mechanisims known as firesticks (rifles) which the Europeans adopted into their military science. That alsong with gunpowder was what led to Moorish downfall in Europe when the Europeans used gun technilogy to force the Moors out of Europe back into Africa.
  Check out the following books for more true knowledge of the Moor and the Moorish Empire;
 The story of the Moors in Spain by Stanley Lane-Poole
 The golden age of the Moors by Ivan van Sertima
 The history of the Moorish Empire in Europe by Samuel Scott
The so-called “Greek Miracle” was never to have a profound effect on European culture. In fact, the record shows virulent persecution of the major Greek thinkers by their own society for teaching concepts which were entirely foreign to their culture. By the 4th century, the temples and places of learning began to be shut down by the emperors of Byzantium. By the middle ages, Europe had sunk back into barbarism. But from the south – again – would come a new age of enlightenment ushered in by black Africans and black Asians from the Arabian peninsula.
As is the custom, these legendary figures have been whitened by academia and their influence erased. Yet it is clear that the sweeping wave of civilization brought in by these sons of Africa saved Europe from its backwardness and created the scientific and cultural foundation which would result in the European Rennaissance.
Over a period of 700 years, 4 superb Moorish dynasties would rule Spain, the Umayad, the Abbasid, the Almoravid and the Almohade.
Origin and Race of The Moors
The Black scholar Wayne Chandler traces the origin of the people called the Moors to an African people known as the Garamante. This civilization stood along important trading routes in the Sahara and existed contemporaneously with other great African civilizations including Egypt of the pre-Christian era. The Moors must be distinguished from the Berbers who were a mixed race people in North Africa resulting from the intermarriage between caucasian Libyans and indigenous Africans. Black Africans had beem called Maures (‘dark’) by the Greeks in antiquity and no distinction had been made between The Moorish tribes which would later invade Spain and their Black African kin. There was also to be an Arab component to these peoples and in order for this to be put in context, the racial composition of Arabia in antiquity must be understood. Much of the Arabian peninsular had originally been populated by Blacks. The area was a colony of the kingdom of Kush (Ethiopia). Southern Arabia, in particular, remained black for a considerable period as the Greeks themselves attest.
With the coming of Islam, interaction between Moors and Arabs increased but research into the manuscripts and documents of medieval Europe emphatically demonstrates that the prevailing image of the Mooor – for the period – concerned was that of the black skinned, woolly haired African. The image occurs repeatedly in such famed works as Las Cantigas de Santa Maria , a 13th century manuscript of Moorish musical works translated by Spain’s King Alfonso X (El Sabio), one of the best known of Europe’s acquirers of Moorish texts. Numerous works such as these leave no doubt as to what race of people the term “Moor” referred to in medieval Europe.

Alfonso set up centres in cities such as Toledo for the express purpose of acquiring and translating these texts. There is no question that it was not until centuries later that the distinctions became blurred and the term Moor began to be used for various other ethnic groups as well.

The Conquest of Spain

The Ummayad Dynasty
By the end of the 7th century AD, the Islamic Jihad had swept through the Arabian peninsular and North Africa. It was the Moorish general Tarik-bin-Ziad who was given the task of spreading Moorish holdings northward into the Iberian peninsular. The catalyst for this action was the request by the Greek governor of Ceuta for help in emancipaton from the tyrany of the visigoth king Roderick who then ruled Spain.
Tarik and his black army swept up into Spain and defeated the Visigoths in successive stages – capturing and consolidating Spanish towns from the south includingToledo and Cordoba.
By 715 AD, the Ummayad dynasty had been established.It would rule Spain for over a century until 850 AD although their racial memory hes been erased, the achievements and monuments of the Moors still endure. The great Mosque at Cordoba, the Mezquita is an architectural marvel and is to this day considered one of the most magnificent buildings of the middle ages.
The Ummayad dynasty was followed by the Abbasid an Arab dynasty which usurped the throne in 750 AD. However, in 756 AD, the African Abdurrahmon led an army of African Moors up into the Iberian Penninsula, overthrew the Abbasid and re-established the Ummayad dynasty.
A description of Cordova gives an idea of the cultural excellence introduced by the Moors into Spain. Excerpted from The Golden Age of the Moor (pg 166) , a historian provides the following analysis:
“Cordova had 471 mosques, and 300 public baths……and the number of houses of the great and noble were 63,000 and 200, 077 houses of the common people. There were ….upwards of 80,000 shops. Water from the mountains was…distributed through every corner and quarter of the city by means of leaden pipes into basins of different shapes, made of the purst gold, the finest silver or plated brass as well into vast lakes, curious tanks, amazing resevoirs and fountains of Grecian marble.” The houses in Cordova were air conditioned in the summer by “ingeniously arranged draughts of fresh air drawn from the garden over beds of flowers, chosen for their perfume, warmed in winter by hot air conveyed through pipes bedded in the walls. Bathrooms supplied hot and cold water and there were tables of gold, set with emweralds rubies and pearls. This list of impressve works appears endless; it includes lampposts that lit their streets at night, to grand palaces, such as the one called Azzahra with its 15,000 doors. Rennaissance men like Zaryab.”

White Slavery

Over time, an ugly development in the history of the Moors began: The initiation and growth of the aquisition of white slaves as a prevalent aspect of its culture. The trade was began by a a Jewish element which began to buy and sell captured Slavs and Germans as laborers and concubines. the polygamous tendencies of the Islamic Black Moors encouraged this development and contributed to the lightening of the complexion of the Moorish element over time. It also contributed to a degeneration of values. The Ummayyad dynasty became ripe foe overthrow and in 1031 Christian forces achieved their defeat and brought the dynasty to a close.
The Almoravid Dynasty
The famous era of the Almoravids begins with The Black Muslim leader Ibn Yasin. Originally brought from Mecca, Yasin’s initial base of operations was in the area of Senegal in West Africa. He embarked upon an ambitious effort to convert all of the surrounding area to Islam through force. Over time, the Almoravids (from “Al-Murabitun”) conquered a vast area of west and northern Africa. In 1076, they overwhelmed and brought to an end the mighty Empire of Ghana itself . In 1086 AD, Yusuf Ibn Tashibin became aware of events in Spain, where Christians had long been persecuting Arabs and Moors. Yusuf invaded Spain to aid in its liberation. He is unequivocably described in the Moorish work Roudh-el Kartos as a black skinned African. Other matters back home in Africa however prompted him to return before the conquest was complete. He left his army to aid the Spaniards in their battle but was later informed that the local Spanish governers had left the Moors to do most of the fighting.
Yusuf in fury, ordered their replacement with Moorish rulers and there followed a splendid era of African rule which would not end until 1142 AD

The Almohade Dynasty

In 1145, the last Moorish dynasty came to power. African accomplishment in the penisular reached its apex. But Christian resolve had strengthened, and as Moorish culture grew more and more passive, Christian forces gained courage and began a campaign which recaptured territories from the blacks over the following centuries.
The Almohade dynasty had deep intellectual concerns and encouraged its thinkers and scholars to engage in great debates and expressions of ideas of both theological and secular nature. It is during the reign of this dynasty that the tower of Seville is constructed. And it is during this time that Abu-Al-Walid Mohamed ibn Mohamed ibgn Rashd, known to the West as Averroes established a peerless intellectual body of work in the arts and sciences which is revered to this day.
Ummayad savants and scholars initiated another intellectual revolution by ushering in and promoting:
Land reforms in Spain.
Religious freedom.
Support of the arts and sciences.
A rennaissance in knowledge as the wisdom of the ancient cultures was relearned through the works of the Greeks, Hebrews, Chinese, Persians.Translating all into Arabic.
They were the first to trace the curvilinear path of light through the air.(1100)
They achieved advances in chemistry including the invention of gunpopwder.
Discoveries in Astronomy and on the nature of the earth.
The invention of the Astrolabe and the compass.
The medical use of vivisection and dissection.
The Almohade dynasty was to last until 1230 when Christian forces drove the last Moorish elements out of Spain in successive campaigns. But Europe was to benefit imeasurably from the legacy of these Africans for centuries after the expulsion:
Absence of class system, such that any man (regardless of birth stature) could rise to any rank except that of supreme ruler. This was in marked contrast to the Visigothic Christians who were legendry in their cruelty and usery
The creation of hospitals with running water and the widespread construction of baths. Christian Europe held this rite of bating in contempt for centuries.
Numerous fabulous gardens.
Latrines with running water hundreds of years before the rest of Europe.
Paved streets and street lights. Numerous bookstores and a highly literate populace.
The Moors also took interior decoration to new heights in elaborate building ideas. This compares with the rest of Europe where most structures were barren, artless hulks without the minimum of utilities even for hygiene.


The Moors of Al Andalu (Spain) introduced advanced numerous crops and methods of soil productivity including irrigation, crop rotation and the use of manure. After harvesting, Moorish preservation and drying know-how meant that foods could endure and be edible for several years.
There were numerous schools and places of learning in Moorish Al-Andalus (Spain).
begining with the Univerity of Cordoba, other great institutions were built in Seville, Valencia, Mallarga and Granada. Like the ancient Greeks under the Egyptians , several of the most prominent European Catholic scholars studied under the African Moors in their institutions in Spain. The Moors translated all great works they could lay their hands on from the ancients into Arabic. This included the knowledge of Egypt, Kush, India, China and the Greece. Western historians point to the Greek component of these documents and attempt to paint the Moors as merely borrowers of Greek intellectual culture. This ignores the fact that Greek knowledge comes directly from Ancient Egypt and that there is convincing evidence that the Moors already possesed similar knowledge of their own from their homelands.
But this was not only limited to higher education. The Moors promoted literacy and the advancement of the general population. Schools were everywhere, many of them free of charge.
Again, far in advance of Western Europe, Moorish physicians were specially trained and highly regulated. They practiced surgery and cauterization and understood the importance of cleanliness in the operating environment.
Jose Pimienta Bey notes in Golden Age of the Moor (pg 211):
“Europeans offered no competition with Moorish advances in pathology, aetiology (study of diseases), therapeutics, surgery and pharmacology. Texts were written by Moorish physicians describing surgical technique and instruments that were used; doctors specialized in pediatrics, obstetrics, opthalmology, and in the treatment of hernias and tumors. Imamuddin tells us that Moorish scientists were even importing monkey skeletons from Africa for use in dissection when conditions prevented the use of cadavers.”
For the Andalusan Moor, scholarly endeavor was considered devine. The more one knew of one’s self and one’s World, the more one was sup[posed to know of one’s Creator. The ancient Kemetic creed “Know Thyself” was very much the creed of Andalus……….Rulers such as the Caliph Abd al-Rahman III, spent almost one-third of the state’s income on education. At a time when most Christan monarchs could not even write their own names, the Caliphs of Moorish Spain were often scholars.
The works of a number of Moorish savants were revered, translated and became required texts in the universities which later developed in Europe. These include Generalities on Medicine by Averroes, Solitary Regime by Avempace, Primus Canonis by Avicenna and Al-Tasrif, by Abulcasis, which became the predominant university medical text for Europe’s physicians.
It was the Moorish chemists such as Jabir who discovered nitric, nitro-muriatric and sulphuric acid. They were well versed in the science well before Europe.
Jose Pimienta-Bey notes the proximity of the founding dates of the major European universities to the translations of Moorish works by rulers such as Alfonso X of Spain. These centres of learning relied primarilly on Moorish texts for centuries

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Posted: August 18, 2010 in Uncategorized

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